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Normal ECG Standards and Percentile Charts in the Infant, Child and Adolescent

  • Hung-Chi Lue
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. , Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics and Attending Pediatric cardiologist, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Tel.: +886 2 2331-9494.
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Mei-Hwan Wu
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Jou-Kou Wang
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Ming-Tai Lin
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Chun-Wei Lu
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Shuenn-Nan Chiu
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Chun-An Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • En-Ting Wu
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Ching-Chia Wang
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Chun-Min Fu
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Wei-Chieh Tseng
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Wei-Hsuan Chang
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Meng-Chang Lee
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 3 National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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Open AccessPublished:October 31, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2022.07.013
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      Abstract

      Background

      Normal ECG standards in newborns, infants, children and adolescents have been collected and published by many authors. Only those by Davignon et al., Rijinbeek et al. and our two studies were covering all ages from birth to adolescence. The standards reflecting the growth and development of the heart in infants, children and adolescents remained to be studied and explored.

      Methods

      We selected from our ECG database, after discussions and consultation, 15 key ECG parameters and analyzed for their age- and sex-specific mean, standard deviation and 2nd to 98th percentiles and their percentile charts constructed.

      Results

      The ranges and distributions of the normal ECG standards, means and 2nd to 98th percentiles of 15 key parameters were established.

      Conclusion

      A complete set of normal ECG standards of 15 key parameters from birth to adolescents becomes available for clinicians and reserchers.

      Key words